- Chernobyl disaster: how the Soviet Union's cover story was blown | New Scientist
- Harvey Wasserman
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Admiral Harry Felt, in charge of the U. There was awareness and pushback within the military to the targeting and nuclear war fighting strategies promoted by SAC. Much of this pushback was the product of inter-service rivalries with the Navy and Army resentful of the large budget and strategic dominance of the Strategic Air Command. By the late s increasing Soviet nuclear capabilities made it clear that nuclear bombers on the ground were easy targets for a Soviet first strike attack.
The Army and Navy were at the very beginning of the push that would disseminate American nuclear forces among the three services rather than being the sole possession of the Air Force. Such critiques did not result in significant reductions in weapons included in strategic war planning or nuclear targeting selection. Just days after newly elected President John Kennedy took office in early a SAC bomber blew up in mid-air over North Carolina while carrying two Mark 39 thermonuclear weapons each with a yield of approximately 4 MT megatons.
Or if the winds blew the other way, an attack on eastern Russia could eventually kill hundreds of millions of Europeans including…possibly half the population of the British Isles. The tactical planning for the deaths of hundreds of millions of people in the target nation and untold tens of millions more downwind was achieved in less than two decades after the advent of nuclear weapons and only a couple of years after the achievement of thermonuclear weapons.
By the end of the s this abstract fear was being translated into an essential component of nuclear war planning. I have written elsewhere on how the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped human beings conceptualize the nature of the earth in a fundamentally new manner. For the first time in the history of the world it was possible to imagine that hundreds of millions of people on all sides of any conflict would be casualties, and that there would be no winner left to savor the victory.
The idea of the earth as victim implies a new conception of the earth—as something that can be killed—and therefore as something that is alive. As people around the world became more aware of the dangers of radiological contamination, and the extent to which this contamination was already present from the massive nuclear testing programs undertaken by all nuclear weapons states, an awareness of the damage to the ecosystem from the spread of radiation separate from the possibility of nuclear war began to emerge.
Chernobyl disaster: how the Soviet Union's cover story was blown | New Scientist
This understanding began as cognitive fallout from the Bravo test. When the Daigo Fukuryu Maru pulled into port in Yaizu, the public learned that radioactive fallout could sicken and kill people located over km from a detonation, making clear the far ranging and lethal aspects of fallout from a single nuclear weapon. By the time that it was clear that the hospitalized crew was suffering from radiation sickness and that the fish they caught had been irradiated, their catch of tuna had already made it to market.
Public safety monitors endeavored to find the, presumably radioactive, tuna. While monitoring the tuna supply at fresh fish markets, such as Tsukiji in Tokyo, they found that a significant amount of fish were testing positive for radiation. All across Japan tuna was dumped into pits and buried. Around the Pacific Rim radioactive fish were found in numerous markets.
In October , in a catch that came to Yokohama, all caught approximately 1, miles to the northeast of the Marshall Islands, one in ten tuna was found to be highly radioactive. In November two tons of tuna caught off the coast of Australia were found to be highly radioactive when brought to market in Tokyo, one of five ports where Geiger counters were in place to measure the catches. Concurrent with the reports of the illness of the crew of the Daigo Fukuryu Maru and of the contamination of hundreds of Marshallese, news began to emerge from inside the United States about downwind radioactive fallout from nuclear weapon testing in Nevada.
One morning in , a radiochemistry class at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York noticed that their Geiger counters were all registering unusually high levels.
The teacher and students found that when they took the Geiger counters outside the levels spiked dramatically higher. AEC scientists determined that a fallout cloud from a nuclear weapon test in Nevada two days earlier had deposited the radiation they were reading. Japanese government map of locations of radioactive fish catches source: drawing by Y.
Nishiwaki reprinted in, Sevitt Against the discourse put forward by the U. Louis, physiologist and activist Barry Commoner, and Dr. Alfred Schwartz, a St.
https://phobokadedi.tk Louis pediatrician. This study collected baby teeth sent voluntarily to the Committee on Nuclear Information and analyzed them at Washington University for strontium content.
The Baby Teeth Study found that the levels of strontium in the teeth of children being born in the late fifties and early sixties contained on average 14 times more strontium than those of children born ten years earlier. Antinuclear activists seized on this data as global fears were rising about the dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear weapon tests, which were being conducted in the United States and many other localities including the Soviet Union and the Pacific Islands at the rate of dozens per year throughout most of the fifties and early sixties.
The RAND Corporation conducted a similar, but secret, study years earlier under contract to the United States Atomic Energy Commission, published under the name Project Sunshine, analyzing teeth, bones and the ashes of cremated bodies collected from human subjects and cadavers around the world. Their findings were in line with the later Baby Teeth Study findings that there had been an increase in traceable radionuclides in the bodies of everyone living being after the advent of nuclear weapons.
In September , in the midst of the Berlin Crisis, the Soviet Union abandoned the nuclear testing moratorium it had agreed to with the U. Testing began again with a feverish intensity with the U. What made these ads so powerful was that, at a time when radiological fallout was being spread across the globe, there was no place on Earth where one could avoid it, and especially, where children could be protected from the threat. Benjamin Spock, a beloved public figure and author of a bestselling book on raising children. SANE also published ads that showed a milk bottle emblazoned with the symbol for poison reflecting the primary path of radioactive iodine into the body via dairy products , and also an ad that directly reflected the findings of the St.
At roughly the same time, Rachel Carson published her landmark book Silent Spring. Carson argued that the widespread and indiscriminate use of pesticides, such as DDT, was killing birds and that human civilization ran the risk of being responsible for the extinction of all birds.
Carson suggested that this would create silent springs in the seasons of the future. Ecological study, awareness, and activism would grow throughout the s and s. The idea of the Earth as a single ecosystem would coalesce in the s around a concept articulated by the British scientist James Lovelock.
In the process of designing criteria for such a determination, Lovelock turned his gaze back on the Earth and concluded that, in essential ways, the Earth functioned as a single, self-regulating organism. Jesse Jackson to call them "the Woodward and Bernstein of the election. In he helped pioneer the global grassroots movement against atomic reactors, and helped coin the phrase "No Nukes" in Based in Ohio, Wasserman works to replace the Perry and Davis-Besse nuclear power plants with renewables and efficiency , and has helped his friends shut a trash-burning power plant, a proposed radioactive waste dump, the two Zimmer and Perry nukes, a refuge-threatening housing development and a McDonald's restaurant.
Wasserman's articles have appeared in the New York Times ,  the Huffington Post ,  and other newspapers and magazines. In the book Killing Our Own: The Disaster of America's Experience with Atomic Radiation , Wasserman relates stories about people and animals living near nuclear weapons facilities, mining and waste storage sites, uranium processing plants, and nuclear power reactors.
For example, farmers in central Pennsylvania whom he spoke to reported abnormalities in their animals in the wake of the Three Mile Island accident in Farmers living near the Rocky Flats plutonium factory in Colorado, and near the West Valley Reprocessing Plant in upstate New York, have also complained of defects and illnesses among their animals.
According to acclaimed financial writer Charles R. Morris, the sub-prime mortgage crisis is only a preview of the havoc that will play out across the full spectrum of financial assets. Arcane credit derivatives bets are now well into the tens of trillions. The astronomical leverage at major banks and their hedge fund and private equity clients virtually guarantees massive disruption in global markets.
This is a crash weigh not firebreaks. Quarter centenary of free-market zealotry that t extolled assed stripping, abuse lending, and hedge fund secrecy will go down in flames with it. The required restructurining will be at least as painful as the very difficult period of Paul Volcker slew the inflation dragon in the early s, and set the stage for the high performance economy of the s and s.
But Wall Street's prosperity soon tilted into gross excess. Now global confidence in American securities has been shattered, the dollar debased, and the crown jewels of American industry put on auction for foreigners. Continued denial and concealment could cause the crisis to stretch out for years, but financial and government leaders are still down playing the problem.
The book's liner notes state; "How does a strong and growing economy lend itself to job uncertainty, debt, bankruptcy, and economic fear for a vast number of Americans? Free Lunch provides answers to this great economic mystery of our time, revealing how today's government policies and spending reach deep into the wallets of the many for the benefit of the wealthy few.
From how George W. Johnston's many revelations include:.
- Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States?
- Killing Our Own: The Disaster of America’s Experience with Atomic Rad….
- Shoulder Replacement.
- Uranium & Nuclear Energy Websites.
- Trinucleotide Repeat Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology).
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- Calaméo - Killing Our Own: The Disaster of America’s Experience with Atomic Radiation!
Free Lunch shows how the lobbyists and lawyers representing the most powerful 0. The liner notes state; "At the most chaotic juncture in Iraq's civil war, a new law is unveiled that allow Shell and BP to claim the country's vast oil reserves. Immediately following September 11, The Bush administration quietly out sources the running of the 'War in Terror' to Halliburton and Blackwater. After a powerful tsunami devastates the coasts of Southeast Asia, the pristine beaches are auctioned off to tourist resorts.